Biomaterials



Biomaterials are natural or synthetic, alive or lifeless, and which are usually made of multiple components that interact with biological systems. Biomaterials are used in medical applications to augment or replace a natural function. Biomaterials can be derived from nature or can be synthesized in the laboratory using different chemical approaches utilizing polymers, metallic components, ceramics or composite materials. Biomaterials should be compatible with the body. There are often issues of biocompatibility which must be resolved before any product can be placed on the market and used in a clinical setting. Hence, biomaterials are usually subjected to the same requirements like those undergone by new drug therapies. Biopolymers are polymers which are produced by living organisms. Proteins and peptides, Cellulose and starch, and DNA and RNA are all examples of biopolymers, in which the monomeric units are amino acids, sugars, and nucleotides respectively.

  • Joint replacements and artificial ligaments and tendons
  • Bone plates and Bone cement
  • Intraocular lenses (IOLs) for eye surgery
  • Dental implants for tooth fixation
  • Blood vessel prostheses, Heart valves and Stents
  • Skin repair devices (artificial tissue)
  • Cochlear replacements
  • Drug delivery mechanisms
  • Nerve conduits
  • Surgical sutures, clips, Surgical mesh and staples for wound closure
  • Pins and screws for fracture stabilisation

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